Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are neoplasms characterized by their ability to secrete biogenic amines and peptides. These cause distinct clinical pathology including carcinoid syndrome, marked by diarrhoea and flushing, as well as fibrosis, notably mesenteric fibrosis. Mesenteric fibrosis often results in significant morbidity by causing intestinal obstruction, oedema and ischaemia. Although advancements have been made to alleviate symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and prolong the survival of patients with SI-NETs, therapeutic options for patients with mesenteric fibrosis are still limited. As improved insight in the complex pathogenesis of mesenteric fibrosis is key to the development of new therapies, we evaluated the literature for known and putative mediators of fibrosis in SI-NETs. In this review, we discuss the tumour microenvironment, growth factors and signalling pathways involved in the complex process of fibrosis development and tumour progression in SI-NETs, in order to elucidate potential new avenues for scientific research and therapies to improve the management of patients suffering from the complications of mesenteric fibrosis.

Fibrosis, Growth factors, Neuroendocrine tumour, Targeted therapy, Tumour microenvironment,
Endocrine - Related Cancer

Blažević, A, Hofland, J, Hofland, L.J, Feelders, R.A, & de Herder, W.W. (2018). Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours and fibrosis. Endocrine - Related Cancer (Vol. 25, pp. R115–R130). doi:10.1530/ERC-17-0380