Background: For esophageal cancer, the number of retrieved lymph nodes (LNs) is often used as a quality indicator. The aim of this study is to analyze the number of retrieved LNs in The Netherlands, assess factors associated with LN yield, and explore the association with short-term outcomes. This is a population-based study on lymph node retrieval in patients with esophageal cancer, presenting results from the Dutch Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Audit. Study Design: For this retrospective national cohort study, patients with esophageal carcinoma who underwent esophagectomy between 2011 and 2016 were included. The primary outcome was the number of retrieved LNs. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to test for association with ≥ 15 LNs. Patients and Results: 3970 patients were included. Between 2011 and 2016, the median number of LNs increased from 15 to 20. Factors independently associated with ≥ 15 LNs were: 0–10 kg preoperative weight loss (versus: unknown weight loss, odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.71 [0.57–0.88]), Charlson score 0 (versus: Charlson score 2: 0.76 [0.63–0.92]), cN2 category (reference: cN0, 1.32 [1.05–1.65]), no neoadjuvant therapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (reference: neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, 1.73 [1.29–2.32] and 2.15 [1.54–3.01]), minimally invasive transthoracic (reference: open transthoracic, 1.46 [1.15–1.85]), open transthoracic (versus open and minimally invasive transhiatal, 0.29 [0.23–0.36] and 0.43 [0.32–0.59]), hospital volume of 26–50 or > 50 resections/year (reference: 0–25, 1.94 [1.55–2.42] and 3.01 [2.36–3.83]), and year of surgery [reference: 2011, odds ratios (ORs) 1.48, 1.53, 2.28, 2.44, 2.54]. There was no association of ≥ 15 LNs with short-term outcomes. Conclusions: The number of LNs retrieved increased between 2011 and 2016. Weight loss, Charlson score, cN category, neoadjuvant therapy, surgical approach, year of resection, and hospital volume were all associated with increased LN yield. Retrieval of ≥ 15 LNs was not associated with increased postoperative morbidity/mortality.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6396-7, hdl.handle.net/1765/105171
Journal Annals of Surgical Oncology
Citation
van der Werf, L.R. (L. R.), Dikken, J.L, van Berge Henegouwen, M.I, Lemmens, V.E.P.P, Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P, Wijnhoven, B.P.L, … Voncken, F.E.M. (F. E.M.). (2018). A Population-based Study on Lymph Node Retrieval in Patients with Esophageal Cancer: Results from the Dutch Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Audit. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 1–10. doi:10.1245/s10434-018-6396-7