This chapter proposes a model of positive and negative learning (PNL model). We use the term negative learning when stress among students occurs, and when knowledge and abilities are not properly developed. We use the term positive learning if motivation is high and active learning occurs. The PNL model proposes that (a) learning-related demands and resources contribute to learning engagement and burnout, (b) that learning engagement improves critical thinking, which (c) should enhance students' abilities to detect fake news. Two studies demonstrate the validity of the learning engagement and burnout constructs, and learning-related demands and resources as possible antecedents. Also, critical thinking mediates the effect of learning engagement on fake news detection. Still, 30.30% of the students believed more in fake news than in real news. We discuss implications of the PNL model for the design of learning conditions.

Critical thinking, Fake News, Learning demands, Learning resources, Motivation, Negative learning, Positive learning, Stress,
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Department of Psychology

Dormann, C, Demerouti, E, & Bakker, A.B. (2017). A model of positive and negative learning: Learning demands and resources, learning engagement, critical thinking, and fake news detection. In Positive Learning in the Age of Information: A Blessing or a Curse? (pp. 315–346). doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19567-0_19