Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and associated with papillary muscle (PM) abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) for the geometric assessment of LV hypertrophy and PM morphology.
Methods: The study included 24 patients with an established diagnosis of HC and 31 healthy controls. 3DE was performed using an iE33 or EPIQ 7C ultrasound system with an X5-1 transducer. QLAB software was used for the 3D analysis of LV wall thickness (LVWT) and PM morphology and hypertrophy; the number and cross-sectional area (CSA) of anterolateral and posteromedial PMs; and the presence of bifid or accessory PMs.
Results: Patients with HC had a larger LVWT compared to controls in all segments (p OpenSPiltSPi 0.001), and LVWT was largest in the midventricular septal segment (2.12 ± 0.68 cm). The maximum LVWT followed a spiral pattern from the LV base to the apex. The CSA of both anterolateral and posteromedial PMs was larger in patients with HC than in controls (1.92 vs. 1.15 cm2; p = 0.001 and 1.46 vs. 1.08 cm2; p = 0.033, respectively). The CSA of the posteromedial PM was larger in patients with LVOT obstruction than in those without (2.64 vs 1.16 cm2, p = 0.021).
Conclusions: 3DE allows the assessment of LV geometry and PM abnormalities in patients with HC. 3DE demonstrated that the maximum hypertrophy was variable and generally located in a spiral from the LV base to the apex.

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Journal of Ultrasound
Department of Cardiology

Erden, M, van Velzen, H.G, Menting, M.E, van den Bosch, A.E, Ren, B, Michels, M, … Schinkel, A.F.L. (2018). Three-dimensional echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular geometry and papillary muscle morphology in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Journal of Ultrasound, 21(1), 17–24. doi:10.1007/s40477-017-0277-y