Until recently, functional tests were the most important tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases in the paediatric population. Chest imaging has gained considerable importance for paediatric pulmonology as a diagnostic and monitoring tool to evaluate lung structure over the past decade. Since January 2016, a large number of papers have been published on innovations in chest computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, acquisition techniques, image analysis strategies and their application in different disease areas. Together, these papers underline the importance and potential of chest imaging and image analysis for today’s paediatric pulmonology practice. The focus of this review is chest CT and MRI, as these are, and will be, the modalities that will be increasingly used by most practices. Special attention is given to standardisation of image acquisition, image analysis and novel applications in chest MRI. The publications discussed underline the need for the paediatric pulmonology community to implement and integrate state-of-the-art imaging and image analysis modalities into their structure–function laboratory for the benefit of their patients.