Oncolytic viruses (OVs), viruses that specifically result in killing tumor cells, represent a promising class of cancer therapy. Recently, the focus in the OV therapy field has shifted from their direct oncolytic effect to their immune stimulatory effect. OV therapy can function as a “kick start” for the antitumor immune response by releasing tumor associated antigens and release of inflammatory signals. Combining OVs with immune modulators could enhance the efficacy of both immune and OV therapies. Additionally, genetic engineering of OVs allows local expression of immune therapeutics, thereby reducing related toxicities. Different options to modify the tumor microenvironment in combination with OV therapy have been explored. The possibilities and obstacles of these combinations will be discussed in this review.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Immune therapy, Oncolytic viruses, Transgenes
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2018.03.006, hdl.handle.net/1765/105460
Journal Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews
Citation
de Graaf, J.F, de Vor, L, Fouchier, R.A.M, & van den Hoogen, B.G. (2018). Armed oncolytic viruses: A kick-start for anti-tumor immunity. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2018.03.006