Background: Although the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is one of the most reliable methods of contraception, it is associated with an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy in case of unintended pregnancy. A rare form of ectopic pregnancy is the caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), with a high risk of serious maternal morbidity, such as uterine rupture, massive haemorrhage and resulting infertility. This report describes the first case of a viable CSP at 13 weeks of gestation in association with the use of a LNG-IUD.
Case-presentation: A 36-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our outpatient clinic because of suspicion of a CSP. The pregnancy was unintended and was diagnosed during replacement of the LNG-IUD after five years. The patient had undergone two caesarean sections in the past. Ultrasound investigation showed an intact pregnancy of approximately 13 weeks of gestation located in the uterine scar. Because of the size of the gestational sac, a laparotomy was performed under general anaesthesia using a Joel-Cohen incision. The procedure was complicated by a total blood loss of 1500 mL, mostly caused by diffuse bleeding from the placental bed.
Conclusion: Unintended pregnancies in women using a LNG-IUD are frequently ectopic pregnancies with a preponderance to nidate outside the fallopian tube. Therefore, early diagnosis and location of the pregnancy in women using a LNG-IUD is essential.

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European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
Department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics

Hitzerd, E., Bogers, H., Kianmanesh Rad, N., & Duvekot, H. (2018). A viable caesarean scar pregnancy in a woman using a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device. European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 1–3. doi:10.1080/13625187.2018.1447663