Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of advance care planning (ACP) in frail older adults. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting: Residential care homes in the Netherlands (N=16). Participants: Care home residents and community-dwelling adults receiving home care (N=201; n=101 intervention; n=100 control). Participants were 75 years and older, frail, and capable of consenting to participation. Intervention: Adjusted Respecting Choices ACP program. Measurements: The primary outcome was change in patient activation (Patient Activation Measure, PAM-13) between baseline and 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included change in quality of life (SF-12), advance directive (AD) completion, and surrogate decision-maker appointment. Use of medical care in the 12 months after inclusion was also assessed. Multilevel analyses were performed, controlling for clustering effects and differences in demographics. Results: Seventy-seven intervention participants and 83 controls completed the follow-up assessment. There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention (-0.26±11.2) and control group (-1.43±10.6) in change scores of the PAM (p=.43) or the SF-12. Of intervention group participants, 93% completed an AD, and 94% appointed a decision-maker. Of control participants, 34% completed an AD, and 67% appointed a decision-maker (p<.001). No differences in the use of medical care were found. Conclusions: ACP did not increase levels of patient activation or quality of life but did increase completion of ADs and appointment of surrogate decision-makers. It did not affect use of medical care.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Advance care planning, Frailty, Older adults, Patient activation, Randomized controlled trial
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15333, hdl.handle.net/1765/105602
Journal American Geriatrics Society. Journal
Citation
Overbeek, A, Korfage, I.J, Jabbarian, L.J, Billekens, P, Hammes, B.J, Polinder, S, … Rietjens, J.A.C. (2018). Advance Care Planning in Frail Older Adults: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. American Geriatrics Society. Journal. doi:10.1111/jgs.15333