Studies on policy instruments have been crucial to understanding the late twentieth century transformations of the state, with the resulting processes of public sector reform and devolution (Kassim and Le Galès 2010). Various strands of analysis have revived classic questions in relation to whether, when, what and how governments govern and interact with citizens. Research has stressed, for example, the deceptive apparent neutrality of instruments and how it has been used to create consensus on policy initiatives while hiding implicit political goals (John 2011; Kassim and Le Galès 2010).,
Erasmus University Rotterdam

Semprebon, M. (2017). The normative construction of a (public) urban space through the use of policy instruments. In Public Space: Between Reimagination and Occupation (pp. 158–166). doi:10.4324/9781315603018