Background & Aims: Human enteroids present a novel tool to study human intestinal ion transport physiology and pathophysiology. The present study describes the contributions of Cl- and HCO3 - secretion to total cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated electrogenic anion secretion in human duodenal enteroid monolayers and the relevant changes after differentiation. Methods: Human duodenal enteroids derived from 4 donors were grown as monolayers and differentiated by a protocol that includes the removal of Wnt3A, R-spondin1, and SB202190 for 5 days. The messenger RNA level and protein expression of selected ion transporters and carbonic anhydrase isoforms were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. Undifferentiated and differentiated enteroid monolayers were mounted in the Ussing chamber/voltage-current clamp apparatus, using solutions that contained as well as lacked Cl- and HCO3 -/CO2, to determine the magnitude of forskolin-induced short-circuit current change and its sensitivity to specific inhibitors that target selected ion transporters and carbonic anhydrase(s). Results: Differentiation resulted in a significant reduction in the messenger RNA level and protein expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, (CFTR) Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1), and potassium channel, voltage gated, subfamily E, regulatory subunit 3 (KCNE3); and, conversely, increase of down-regulated-in-adenoma (DRA), electrogenic Na+/HCO3 - co-transporter 1 (NBCe1), carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2), and carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4). Both undifferentiated and differentiated enteroids showed active cAMP-stimulated anion secretion that included both Cl- and HCO3 - secretion as the magnitude of total active anion secretion was reduced after the removal of extracellular Cl- or HCO3 -/CO2. The magnitude of total anion secretion in differentiated enteroids was approximately 33% of that in undifferentiated enteroids, primarily owing to the reduction in Cl- secretion with no significant change in HCO3 - secretion. Anion secretion was consistently lower but detectable in differentiated enteroids compared with undifferentiated enteroids in the absence of extracellular Cl- or HCO3 -/CO2. Inhibiting CFTR, NKCC1, carbonic anhydrase(s), cAMP-activated K+ channel(s), and Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase reduced cAMP-stimulated anion secretion in both undifferentiated and differentiated enteroids. Conclusions: Human enteroids recapitulate anion secretion physiology of small intestinal epithelium. Enteroid differentiation is associated with significant alterations in the expression of several ion transporters and carbonic anhydrase isoforms, leading to a reduced but preserved anion secretory phenotype owing to markedly reduced Cl- secretion but no significant change in HCO3 - secretion.

Bicarbonate Secretion, Chloride Secretion, DRA, Ion Transport,
Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Yin, J. (Jianyi), Tse, C.-M. (Chung-Ming), Avula, L.R. (Leela Rani), Singh, V. (Varsha), Foulke-Abel, J, de Jonge, H.R, & Donowitz, M. (Mark). (2018). Molecular Basis and Differentiation-Associated Alterations of Anion Secretion in Human Duodenal Enteroid Monolayers. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 5(4), 591–609. doi:10.1016/j.jcmgh.2018.02.002