Objective: To provide an overview of prediction models for the risk of developing endometrial cancer in women of the general population or for the presence of endometrial cancer in symptomatic women. Methods: We systematically searched the Embase and Pubmed database until September 2017 for relevant publications. We included studies describing the development, the external validation, or the updating of a multivariable model for predicting endometrial cancer in the general population or symptomatic women. Results: Out of 2756 references screened, 14 studies were included. We found two prediction models for developing endometrial cancer in the general population (risk models) and one extension. Eight studies described the development of models for symptomatic women (diagnostic models), one comparison of the performance of two diagnostic models and two external validation. Sample size varied from 60 (10 with cancer) to 201,811 (855 with cancer) women. The age of the women was included as a predictor in almost all models. The risk models included epidemiological variables related to the reproductive history of women, hormone use, BMI, and smoking history. The diagnostic models also included clinical predictors, such as endometrial thickness and recurrent bleeding. The concordance statistic (c), assessing the discriminative ability, varied from 0.68 to 0.77 in the risk models and from 0.73 to 0.957 in the diagnostic models. Methodological information was often limited, especially on the handling of missing data, and the selection of predictors. One risk model and four diagnostic models were externally validated. Conclusions: Only a few models have been developed to predict endometrial cancer in asymptomatic or symptomatic women. The usefulness of most models is unclear considering methodological shortcomings and lack of external validation. Future research should focus on external validation and extension with new predictors or biomarkers, such as genetic and epigenetic markers.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Diagnostic model, Endometrial cancer, Methods, Reporting, Risk model, Systematic review
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.03.023, hdl.handle.net/1765/105763
Journal Critical Reviews in Oncology / Hematology
Citation
Alblas, M. (Maaike), Velt, K.B. (Kimberley B.), Pashayan, N. (Nora), Widschwendter, M. (Martin), Steyerberg, E.W, & Vergouwe, Y. (2018). Prediction models for endometrial cancer for the general population or symptomatic women: A systematic review. Critical Reviews in Oncology / Hematology (Vol. 126, pp. 92–99). doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.03.023