Introduction Surgical procedures are increasingly carried out in a day-case setting. Along with this increase, psychological outcomes have become prominent. The objective was to evaluate prospectively the prognostic effects of sociodemographic, medical, and psychological variables assessed before day-case surgery on psychological outcomes after surgery. Methods The study was carried out between October 2010 and September 2011. We analyzed 398 mixed patients, from a randomized controlled trial, undergoing day-case surgery at a university medical center. Structural equation modeling was used to jointly study presurgical prognostic variables relating to sociodemographics (age, sex, nationality, marital status, having children, religion, educational level, employment), medical status (BMI, heart rate), and psychological status associated with anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A)), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI)), aggression (State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS)), depressive moods (HADS-D), self-esteem, and self-efficacy. We studied psychological outcomes on day 7 after surgery, including anxiety, fatigue, depressive moods, and aggression regulation. Results The final prognostic model comprised the following variables: anxiety (STAI, HADS-A), fatigue (MFI), depression (HADS-D), aggression (STAS), self-efficacy, sex, and having children. The corresponding psychological variables as assessed at baseline were prominent (i.e. standardized regression coefficients 0.20), with STAI-Trait score being the strongest predictor overall. STAI-State (adjusted R2 = 0.44), STAI-Trait (0.66), HADS-A (0.45) and STAS-Trait (0.54) were best predicted. Conclusion We provide a prognostic model that adequately predicts multiple postoperative outcomes in day-case surgery. Consequently, this enables timely identification of vulnerable patients who may require additional medical or psychological preventive treatment or–in a worst-case scenario–could be unselected for day-case surgery.,
Department of Anesthesiology

Mijderwijk, H, Stolker, R.J, Duivenvoorden, H.J, Klimek, M, & Steyerberg, E.W. (2018). Prognostic model for psychological outcomes in ambulatory surgery patients: A prospective study using a structural equation modeling framework. PLoS ONE (Vol. 13). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193441