Purpose: The increasing prevalence of obesity or metabolic syndrome (O/MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a global health concern. Clinically relevant and practical translational models mimicking human characteristics of these conditions are lacking. This study aimed to demonstrate proof of concept of the induction of stable O/MS and type 2 DM in a Göttingen minipig model and validate both of these disease-adjusted Göttingen minipig models as impaired healing models for the testing of dental implants.
Materials and Methods: Nine minipigs were split into 3 groups—control (normal diet), obese (cafeteria diet), and diabetic (cafeteria diet plus low-dosage streptozotocin)—followed by placement of dental implants. Inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor α, C-reactive protein, and cortisol were recorded for each study group. Removal torque was measured, and histomorphometric analysis (bone-to-implant contact and bone area fraction occupancy) was performed.
Results: O/MS pigs showed, on average, a 2-fold increase in plasma C-reactive protein (P <.05) and cortisol (P <.09) concentrations compared with controls; DM pigs showed, on average approximately, a 40-fold increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor α levels (P <.05) and a 2-fold increase in cortisol concentrations (P <.05) compared with controls. The impact of O/MS and DM on implants was determined. The torque to interface failure was highest in the control group (200 N-cm) and significantly lower in the O/MS (90 N-cm) and DM (60 N-cm) groups (P <.01). Bone formation around implants was significantly greater in the control group than in the O/MS and DM groups (P <.02).
Conclusions: Both O/MS and DM minipigs express a human-like disease phenotype, and both presented bone-healing impairment around dental implants. Our finding of no significant difference between type 2 DM and O/MS in bone formation around implants provides evidence that further investigation of the impact of O/MS is warranted.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2018.02.021, hdl.handle.net/1765/106196
Journal Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Citation
Coelho, P.G. (Paulo G.), Pippenger, B. (Benjamin), Tovar, N. (Nick), Koopmans, S.-J, Plana, N.M. (Natalie M.), Graves, D.T. (Dana T.), … Dard, M. (Michel). (2018). Effect of Obesity or Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes on Osseointegration of Dental Implants in a Miniature Swine Model. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2018.02.021