PURPOSE: To describe causes, visual outcomes, and prognostic factors in patients with submacular hemorrhage (SMH).
DESIGN: Retrospective case review.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of SMH with a size of at least 1 disc diameter. SMH causes were classified into 3 groups: 1) neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), 2) polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and 3) other miscellaneous causes.
RESULTS: Ninety-eight eyes of 98 patients were included. Based on clinical presentation and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), the diagnoses of PCV (59%), nAMD (31%), and miscellaneous other causes (10%) were made. PCV patients were younger (P = 0.005) and had larger SMH size than nAMD patients (P = 0.008). Poor visual outcome [>1.0 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR)] at 6 months was associated with low initial visual acuity (VA; >1.0 logMAR; P = 0.002) and with the diagnosis of nAMD (P = 0.02). In addition, limited visual outcomes were noted for patients older than 65 years and those with persistent SMH for at least 2 months.
CONCLUSIONS: PCV was the most common cause of SMH in Thailand. ICGA represented a valuable tool for the diagnosis. Visual outcomes were limited for patients with nAMD and for patients who presented with poor initial VA.

Additional Metadata
Keywords indocyanine green angiography, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, polypoidal choriodal vasculopathy, submacular hemorrhage, visual outcomes
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.22608/APO.2017389, hdl.handle.net/1765/106222
Journal Asia-Pacific journal of ophthalmology (Philadelphia, Pa.)
Kunavisarut, P, Thithuan, T. (Tipparut), Patikulsila, D, Choovuthayakorn, J. (Janejit), Watanachai, N. (Nawat), Chaikitmongkol, V. (Voraporn), … Rothová, A. (2018). Submacular Hemorrhage: Visual Outcomes and Prognostic Factors. Asia-Pacific journal of ophthalmology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 7(2), 109–113. doi:10.22608/APO.2017389