Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with increased mortality in chronic kidney disease but the nature of such a relation in the general population is unclear. To investigate the association between phosphate (P) levels and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, we assessed two cohorts from the Rotterdam Study, with follow-up of 14.5 (RS-I) and 10.9 (RS-II) years until January 2012 with availability of fasting phosphate levels. Deaths were classified according to International Classification of Diseases into 7 groups: cardiovascular, cancer, infections, external, dementia, chronic lung diseases and other causes. Sex-stratified Weibull and competing-risks models were adjusted for age, BMI and smoking. Hazard ratios are expressed per 1 mg/dL increase in phosphate levels. The total number of participants included 3731 (RS-I, 2154 women) and 2494 (RS-II, 1361 women) subjects. The main outcome measures were all-cause and cause-specific mortality. A significant positive association was found between phosphate and all-cause mortality in men (pooled HR (95% CI): 1.46 (1.26–1.69)) but not in women (0.90 (0.77–1.05)). In men, higher phosphate increased the risk for cardiovascular mortality (1.66 (1.29–2.14)), other causes (1.67 (1.16–2.40)) and chronic lung disease mortality (1.94 (1.02–3.72)), the latter driven by mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (4.44 (2.08–9.49)). No relations were found for mortality due to infections, cancer, dementia or external causes. In conclusion, serum P is associated with increased all-cause, cardiovascular and COPD mortality in men but not women. The association with COPD mortality is novel and needs further research on underlying mechanisms.

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doi.org/10.1007/s10654-018-0407-7, hdl.handle.net/1765/106356
European Journal of Epidemiology
Department of Internal Medicine

Campos Obando, N., Lahousse, L., Brusselle, G., Stricker, B., Hofman, A., Franco, O.H. (Oscar H.), … Zillikens, C. (2018). Serum phosphate levels are related to all-cause, cardiovascular and COPD mortality in men. European Journal of Epidemiology, 1–13. doi:10.1007/s10654-018-0407-7