Background: Lifestyle factors are important in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. We aimed to systematically review guidelines on primary prevention of CVD and their recommendations on lifestyle advice or intervention, in order to guide primary prevention programs. Methods: Publications in MEDLINE, CINAHL over 7 years since May 3, 2009 were identified. G-I-N International Guideline Library, National Guidelines Clearinghouse, National Library for Health Guideline finder, Canadian Medical Association InfoBase were searched. On the February 8, 2017, we updated the search from Websites of organizations responsible for guidelines development. Study Selection: 2 reviewers screened the titles and abstracts to identify Guidelines from Western countries containing recommendations for lifestyle advice and interventions in primary prevention of CVD. Data Extraction: 2 reviewers independently assessed rigor of guideline development using the AGREEII instrument, and one extracted recommendations. Results: Of the 7 guidelines identified, 6 showed good rigor of development (range 45–86%). The guidelines were consistent in recommendations for smoking cessation, limiting saturated fat and salt intake, avoiding transaturated-fat and sugar, with particular emphasis on sugar-sweetened beverages. Guidelines generally agreed on recommendations for physical activity levels and diets rich in fruit, vegetables, fish and wholegrains. Guidelines differed on recommendations for specific dietary patterns and alcohol consumption. Recommendations on psychological factors and sleep are currently limited. Conclusions: Current guidelines agree on the importance of lifestyle in the prevention of CVD with consensus on most factors including physical activity, smoking cessation and diet, which should be actively integrated in cardiovascular risk reduction programs aiming to improve clinical outcomes.

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Keywords Cardiovascular risk reduction, Guidelines, Lifestyle advice, Lifestyle intervention, Systematic review
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Journal International Journal of Cardiology
Khanji, M.Y. (Mohammed Y.), van Waardhuizen, C.N, Bicalho, V.V.S. (Vinícius V.S.), Ferket, B.S, Hunink, M.G.M, & Petersen, S.E. (2018). Lifestyle advice and interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction: A systematic review of guidelines. International Journal of Cardiology, 263, 142–151. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.02.094