Objectives The objective of this study is to obtain population norms and to assess test-retest reliability of EQ-5D-5L and WHOQOL-BREF for the Indonesian population. Methods A representative sample of 1056 people aged 17–75 years was recruited from the Indonesian general population. We used a multistage stratified quota sampling method with respect to residence, gender, age, education level, religion and ethnicity. Respondents completed EQ-5D-5L and WHOQOL-BREF with help from an interviewer. Norms data for both instruments were reported. For the test-retest evaluations, a sub-sample of 206 respondents completed both instruments twice. Results The total sample and test-retest sub-sample were representative of the Indonesian general population. The EQ-5D-5L shows almost perfect agreement between the two tests (Gwet’s AC: 0.85–0.99 and percentage agreement: 90–99%) regarding the five dimensions. However, the agreement of EQ-VAS and index scores can be considered as poor (ICC: 0.45 and 0.37 respectively). For the WHOQOL-BREF, ICCs of the four domains were between 0.70 and 0.79, which indicates moderate to good agreement. For EQ-5D-5L, it was shown that female and older respondents had lower EQ-index scores, whilst rural, younger and higher-educated respondents had higher EQ-VAS scores. For WHOQOL-BREF: male, younger, higher-educated, high-income respondents had the highest scores in most of the domains, overall quality of life, and health satisfaction. Conclusions This study provides representative estimates of self-reported health status and quality of life for the general Indonesian population as assessed by the EQ-5D-5L and WHOQOL-BREF instruments. The descriptive system of the EQ-5D-5L and the WHOQOL-BREF have high test-retest reliability while the EQ-VAS and the index score of EQ-5D-5L show poor agreement between the two tests. Our results can be useful to researchers and clinicians who can compare their findings with respect to these concepts with those of the Indonesian general population.

doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197098, hdl.handle.net/1765/106465
Department of Psychiatry

Purba, F.D. (Fredrick Dermawan), Hunfeld, J., Iskandarsyah, A., Fitriana, T.S. (Titi Sahidah), Sadarjoen, S., Passchier, J., & van Busschbach, J. (2018). Quality of life of the Indonesian general population: Test-retest reliability and population norms of the EQ-5D-5L and WHOQOL-BREF. PLoS ONE, 13(5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0197098