Introduction: Challenges of direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (BR) are to achieve sufficient implant coverage and lower pole projection. We assessed reoperation rates, long-term patient satisfaction and aesthetic outcome after direct-to-implant BR without acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in women with high breast cancer risk. Methods: Women who underwent bilateral skin or nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate direct-to-implant BR between 1994 and 2006 completed a survey on reoperations and the Breast-Q Reconstruction questionnaire. Photographs taken during follow-up were rated for long-term aesthetic outcome (scale 1–10) by five plastic surgeons. Outcomes were compared between women who never underwent unanticipated reoperations after immediate BR and women who underwent one or more reoperations, adjusted for potential confounders using multivariable linear regression. Results: Of 143 women, 70 (49%) were never reoperated and 73 (51%) had undergone reoperations. Median follow-up was 12 years in both groups (range 7–17 and 6–19 years, respectively). Baseline characteristics were comparable except for history of prophylactic oophorectomy with 81% in the no-reoperations group versus 66% in the reoperated group (p = .03). Breast-Q scores were 59.7 ± 17.3 versus 58.0 ± 17.8 (p = .67) for ‘satisfaction with breasts’ and 71.1 ± 20.3 versus 68.1 ± 22.9 (p = .47) for ‘satisfaction with outcome’ in the no-reoperation versus reoperation group, respectively. Aesthetic outcome was scored 5.8 ± 1.1 in the no-reoperation group versus 5.3 ± 1.3 in the reoperation group (p = .01). Conclusions: The single-stage intent did not prevent unanticipated surgical reinterventions in 51% of the patients. Long-term patient satisfaction was reasonable and not affected by reoperations. Aesthetic outcome, however, was only poor to reasonable and scores were significantly lower in the reoperated group.

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Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery

van Verschuer, V., Mureau, M., Heemskerk-Gerritsen, B., Gadjradj, P. S., Rogier, C. (Cleo), Verhoef, K., … Koppert, L. (2018). Long-term outcomes of bilateral direct-to-implant breast reconstruction in women at high breast cancer risk. Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, 1–8. doi:10.1080/2000656X.2018.1476364