Background The understanding of gender differences in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is an important step towards tailored treatment for the individual patient. The aim of this study was to compare disease phenotype, clinical manifestations, disease activity, and healthcare utilization between men and women with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods Two multicenter observational cohort studies with a prospective design were used to explore the differences between men and women regarding demographic and phenotypic characteristics and healthcare utilization. Detailed data on IBD-phenotype was mainly available from the Dutch IBD Biobank, while the COIN cohort provided healthcare utilization data. Results In the Dutch IBD Biobank study, 2118 CD patients and 1269 UC patients were analyzed. Female CD patients were more often current smokers, and male UC patients were more often previous smokers. Early onset CD (<16 years) was more frequently encountered in males than in females (20% versus 12%, P < 0.01). Male CD patients were more often diagnosed with ileal disease (28% versus 20%, P < 0.01) and underwent more often small bowel and ileocecal resection. Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) were more often encountered in female IBD patients. In the COIN study, 1139 CD patients and 1213 UC patients were analyzed. Male CD patients used prednisone more often and suffered more often from osteopenia. IBD-specific healthcare costs did not differ between male and female IBD patients. Conclusions Sex differences in patients with IBD include age of onset, disease location, and EIM prevalence. No large differences in therapeutic management of IBD were observed between men and women with IBD.

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Keywords Crohn's disease, gender, inflammatory bowel disease, sex, ulcerative colitis
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izy004, hdl.handle.net/1765/107224
Journal Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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Citation
Severs, M, Spekhorst, L.M, Mangen, M.J.J, Dijkstra, G, Löwenberg, M, Hoentjen, F, … Fidder, M. (2018). Sex-Related Differences in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Results of 2 Prospective Cohort Studies. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 24(6), 1298–1306. doi:10.1093/ibd/izy004