Background & Aims: There have been many studies of associations between infant feeding practices and development of celiac disease during childhood, but few studies have focused on overall diets of young children after the weaning period. We aimed to examine the association between common dietary patterns in infants and the occurrence of celiac disease autoimmunity during childhood. Methods: We performed a prospective analysis of data from the Generation R Study that comprised 1997 children born from April 2002 through January 2006 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Food consumption around 1 year of age was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary data were examined using a priori (based on existing guidelines) and a posteriori (principal component analysis and reduced rank regression) dietary pattern analyses. Five dietary patterns were compared. Celiac disease autoimmunity, determined on the basis of serum concentration of transglutaminase-2 autoantibody (ie, TG2A) below or above 7 U/mL, was evaluated at 6 years. Associations between dietary pattern adherence scores and celiac disease autoimmunity were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Higher adherence to the a posteriori–derived prudent dietary pattern (high intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, pasta, and grains and low consumption of refined cereals and sweet beverages) at 1 year was significantly associated with lower odds of celiac disease autoimmunity at 6 years (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.53–0.84). No significant associations were found for the 4 remaining dietary patterns. Conclusions: In a prospective study of dietary patterns of young children in the Netherlands, we associated a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of vegetables and grains and low consumption of refined cereals and sweet beverages, with lower odds of celiac disease autoimmunity. Early-life dietary patterns might therefore be involved in the development of celiac disease during childhood.

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Generation R Study Group

Barroso, M. (Monica), Beth, S.A. (Sytske A.), Voortman, T., Jaddoe, V., van Zelm, M., Moll, H., & Kiefte-de Jong, J. (2018). Dietary Patterns After the Weaning and Lactation Period Are Associated With Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in Children. Gastroenterology, 154(8), 2087–2096.e7. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2018.02.024