Cities around the world are facing a multitude of mobility challenges. Driven by an increase in the number of personal motor vehicles, traffic and traffic congestion are becoming more frequent, parking spaces are becoming more scarce (while also taking up public space), and the urban population is increasingly exposed to air pollution and noise with potentially negative health effects (Arnott and Inci 2006; Arnott and Small 1994; Barth and Boriboonsomsin 2008; Loukopoulos et al. 2005). In addition to producing CO2 and other harmful emissions, personal cars are used inefficiently. It is estimated that they stand unused 95% of the time (Barter 2013) and, when driving, carry only 1.7 persons on average (US Department of Transportation 2011). At the same time, the number of people living in cities is expected to continually increase in both relative and absolute terms. The share of the urban population has been estimated to increase to 66% by 2050, up from 54% in 2014 (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs 2014). Thus, the ongoing urbanization trend will likely exacerbate urban mobility challenges in the near future.

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Keywords Intermodal mobility Multimodal mobility, Mobility markets Spatial analytics Location-based, services Sustainable mobility
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Journal Business & Information Systems Engineering
Willing, C., Brandt, T, & Neumann, D. (2017). Intermodal Mobility. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 59(3), 173–179. doi:10.1007/s12599-017-0471-7