Developments in organ preservation techniques, novel immunosuppressants and improved diagnostics have made organ transplantation the success it is today. That does not mean that we are not still striving to perfect techniques, or that there are no more problems to solve. New strategies to address the donor organ shortage, prevent and manage antibody-mediated rejection, lower long-term allograft failure rates and reduce the toxicity of lifelong immunosuppressive medication are urgently needed, and are being widely researched. Both fundamental research and preclinical studies aim to solve these problems, and ultimately, benefit organ transplant recipients. This article highlights the latest technical developments and trends in xenotransplantation, tissue injury and regeneration, immunosuppression, and transplantation immunology described in the most viewed and cited articles published in the Basic Sciences section of the Transplantation journal during the year 2017.