This systematic review aims to gain insights from existing literature from Southeast Asian countries to improve future HIV prevention programs for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (transwomen). We conducted a systematic search in six international databases for literature published prior to 1 January 2015. We included studies describing behavioral interventions targeting MSM and/or transwomen, and conducted in at least one Southeast Asian country. Five out of 575 screened studies met the inclusion criteria and reported a significant intervention effect on at least one outcome measure, that is, condom use (with casual or commercial partner), water-based lubricant use, number of sex partners, HIV prevention knowledge, or willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis. Peer education/outreach was the most commonly employed type of intervention in the five included studies and was usually delivered as an element of a larger intervention package, together with condom distribution and the provision of drop-in centers. Motivational interviewing was effective, while internet-based interventions appeared to be a viable platform for intervention delivery. Nevertheless, research on behavioral interventions among MSM and transwomen in Southeast Asia is limited. Future interventions should be culturally appropriate, theoretically grounded, and rigorously evaluated. Only then can we best address the HIV epidemic among MSM and transwomen in this region.

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Keywords behavioral intervention, MSM, review, Southeast Asia, transgender
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Journal AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
Nugroho, A. (Adi), Erasmus, V, Zomer, T.P, Wu, Q, & Richardus, J.H. (2017). Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk behavior for MSM and transwomen in Southeast Asia: a systematic review. AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 29(1), 98–104. doi:10.1080/09540121.2016.1200713