Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of hysteroscopy for the detection and treatment of endometrial polyps versus expectant management in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB), a thickened endometrium and benign endometrial sampling. Design: Multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting: Three academic hospitals and nine non-academic teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Population: Women with PMB, an endometrial thickness >4 mm and benign result from endometrial sampling. Methods: Women were randomised to either further diagnostic workup by hysteroscopy (preceded by saline infusion sonography) or expectant management. Main outcomes: The primary outcome measure was recurrence of PMB within a year after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures were time to recurrent bleeding and recurrent bleeding after more than 1 year. In the hysteroscopy group, the presence of polyps and the results of their histology were registered. Results: Between January 2010 and October 2013, 200 women were randomised; 98 to hysteroscopy and 102 to expectant management. Within 1 year a total of 15 women (15.3%) in the hysteroscopy group experienced recurrent bleeding, versus 18 (18.0%) in the expectant management group (relative risk 0.85 (95% CI 0.46–1.59). In the hysteroscopy group, 50/98 (51%) polyps were diagnosed of which 6/98 (6%) showed evidence of endometrial (pre)malignancy; final pathology results after hysterectomy showed three women with hyperplasia with atypia and three women with endometrial cancer. Conclusion: In women with PMB, a thickened endometrium and benign endometrial sampling, operative hysteroscopy does not reduce recurrent bleeding. Hysteroscopy detected focal endometrial (pre)malignancy in 6% of women who had benign endometrial sampling. This finding indicates that in these women, further diagnostic workup is warranted to detect focal (pre)malignancies, missed by blind endometrial sampling. Tweetable abstract: In women with PMB, hysteroscopy does not reduce recurrent bleeding but is warranted to detect focal malignancy.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Endometrial carcinoma, endometrial polyp, endometrial sampling, hysteroscopy
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.14126, hdl.handle.net/1765/108176
Journal BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Van Hanegem, N, Breijer, M.C, Slockers, S.A. (S. A.), Zafarmand, M.H, Geomini, P.M.A.J, Catshoek, R. (R.), … Timmermans, A. (2017). Diagnostic workup for postmenopausal bleeding: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 124(2), 231–240. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.14126