Accumulating evidence suggests that both the intrauterine environment and growth during early life can influence the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, in adulthood. Here, we review the available human data supporting increased metabolic risk among children born premature or small for gestational age; the adrenal and pubertal modifications that contribute to this risk; metabolic changes that occur during adolescence and early adulthood; and approaches to potentially modify or decrease risk of metabolic disease. The risks associated with delivery at term or preterm are compared for each period of life. Knowledge of these associations is fundamental for the paediatric community to develop preventive strategies early during postnatal life.

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Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2016.127, hdl.handle.net/1765/108231
Journal Nature Reviews Endocrinology
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Citation
Mericq, V, Martinez-Aguayo, A. (Alejandro), Uauy, R. (Ricardo), Iñiguez, G. (German), van der Steen, M, & Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S. (2017). Long-term metabolic risk among children born premature or small for gestational age. Nature Reviews Endocrinology (Vol. 13, pp. 50–62). doi:10.1038/nrendo.2016.127