Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most frequent serious complication in preterm infants. We aimed to describe lung structure and ventilatory function of preterm infants with severe BPD and explored the association between early postnatal growth and these outcomes. Methods: We included preterm infants born ≤32 weeks gestational age (GA) with severe BPD. Lung structure was assessed on chest CT with the PRAGMA-BPD scoring system and ventilatory function by polysomnography (PSG) at 6 months corrected age. Postnatal growth was assessed by weight measured at birth, and at 2 and 6 months corrected age. Results: We included 49 infants (median [IQR] GA of 25.7 [24.6-26.3] weeks and mean [SD] birth weight of 760 [210] g). A 95.5% of the chest CT scans showed architectural distortion of the lung, and an oxygen desaturation index (ODI) >5 was found in 74% of the infants. An increase in GA of 1 week was associated with higher total and normal lung volume (β coefficient [95% CI]: 1.86 [0.15, 3.57] and 2.03 [0.41, 3.65]), less hypoattenuation (−4.3 [−7.70, −0.90]%) and lower ODI (−36.7 [−64.2, −9.10]%). Higher weight at 6 months was independently associated with higher total and normal lung volume, and with less severe desaturations. Increased weight gain between 2 and 6 months of corrected age was associated with less severe desaturations during sleep (β coefficient [95% CI]: 2.09 [0.49, 3.70]). Conclusion: Most preterm infants with severe BPD have structural lung abnormalities and impaired ventilatory function early in life, partly explained by birth characteristics and infant growth.

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Pediatric Pulmonology

van Mastrigt, E., Kakar, E., Ciet, P., den Dekker, H., Joosten, K., Kalkman, P., … Pijnenburg, M. (2017). Structural and functional ventilatory impairment in infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatric Pulmonology, 52(8), 1029–1037. doi:10.1002/ppul.23696