Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine are the most common causes of the carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid heart disease occurs in more than half of the patients with the carcinoid syndrome. Patients with carcinoid heart disease who need to undergo surgery should also undergo preoperative evaluation by an expert cardiologist. Treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogs aims at controlling the excessive hormonal output and symptoms related to the carcinoid syndrome and at preventing a carcinoid crisis during interventions. Patients with a gastrinoma require pre- A nd postoperative treatment with high doses of proton pump inhibitors. Patients with a glucagonoma require somatostatin analog treatment and nutritional supplementation. Patients with a VIPoma also require somatostatin analog treatment and intravenous fluid and electrolyte therapy. Insulinoma patients generally require intravenous glucose infusion prior to operation. In patients with localized operable insulinoma, somatostatin analog infusion should only be considered after the effect of this therapy has been electively studied.

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Keywords Carcinoid, Carcinoid heart disease, Carcinoid syndrome, Neuroendocrine tumor
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1159/000461583, hdl.handle.net/1765/108320
Journal Neuroendocrinology: international journal for basic and clinical studies on neuroendocrine relationships
Citation
Kaltsas, G, Caplin, M, Davies, P. (Philippa), Ferone, D, Garcia-Carbonero, R. (Rocio), Grozinsky-Glasberg, S. (Simona), … de Herder, W.W. (2017). ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the Standards of Care in Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pre- A nd Perioperative Therapy in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors. In Neuroendocrinology: international journal for basic and clinical studies on neuroendocrine relationships (Vol. 105, pp. 245–254). doi:10.1159/000461583