AIM To evaluate outcome of acute management and risk of rebleeding in patients with massive hemorrhage due to hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). METHODS This retrospective cohort study included all consecutive patients who presented to our hospital with massive hemorrhage (grade II or III) due to ruptured HCA and were admitted for observation and/or intervention between 1999-2016. The diagnosis of HCA was based on radiological findings from contrastenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or pathological findings from biopsy or resection of the HCA. Hemorrhage was diagnosed based on findings from computed tomography or MRI. Medical records were reviewed for demographic features, clinical presentation, tumor features, initial and subsequent management, short- and long-term complications and patient and lesion follow-up. RESULTS All patients were female (n = 23). Treatment in the acute phase consisted of embolization (n = 9, 39.1%), conservative therapy (n = 13, 56.5%), and other intervention (n = 1, 4.3%). Median hemoglobin level decreased significantly more on days 0-3 in the intervention group than in the patients initially treated conservatively (0.9 mmol/L vs 2.4 mmol/L respectively, P = 0.006). In total, 4 patients suffered severe shortterm complications, which included hypovolemic shock, acute liver failure and abscess formation. After a median follow-up of 36 mo, tumor regression in nonsurgically treated patients occurred with a median reduction of 76 mm down to 25 mm. Four patients underwent secondary (elective) treatment (i.e., tumor resection) to address HCA size of > 5 cm and/or desire for future pregnancy. One case of rebleeding was documented (4.3%). None of the patients experienced long-term complication (mean follow-up time: 36 mo). CONCLUSION With a 4.3% risk of rebleeding, secondary (elective) treatment of HCA after massive hemorrhage may only be considered in patients with persistent HCA > 5 cm.

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Keywords Bleeding, Hemorrhage, Hepatocellular adenoma, Management, Outcome
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Journal World Journal of Gastroenterology
Klompenhouwer, A.J. (Anne J.), de Man, R.A, Thomeer, M, & IJzermans, J.N.M. (2017). Management and outcome of hepatocellular adenoma with massive bleeding at presentation. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 23(25), 4579–4586. doi:10.3748/wjg.v23.i25.4579