Image registration is typically formulated as an optimization process, which aims to find the optimal transformation parameters of a given transformation model by minimizing a cost function. Local minima may exist in the optimization landscape, which could hamper the optimization process. To eliminate local minima, smoothing the cost function would be desirable. In this paper, we investigate the use of a randomized smoothing (RS) technique for stochastic gradient descent (SGD) optimization, to effectively smooth the cost function. In this approach, Gaussian noise is added to the transformation parameters prior to computing the cost function gradient in each iteration of the SGD optimizer. The approach is suitable for both rigid and nonrigid registrations. Experiments on synthetic images, cell images, public CT lung data, and public MR brain data demonstrate the effectiveness of the novel RS technique in terms of registration accuracy and robustness.

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Keywords Image registration, Local minima, Randomized smoothing, Stochastic gradient descent
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Journal Medical Image Analysis
Sun, W. (Wei), Poot, D.H.J, Smal, I, Yang, X, Niessen, W.J, & Klein, S. (2017). Stochastic optimization with randomized smoothing for image registration. Medical Image Analysis, 35, 146–158. doi:10.1016/