Clinical and histopathologic characteristics associated with renal outcomes in lupus nephritis
Background and objectives The prognostic significance of histopathologic (sub)classes in the current classification of lupus nephritis (LN) is controversial. We analyzed clinical and histopathologic predictors of renal outcome in LN outside the framework of the classification. Design, setting, participants, &measurementsVariables (50 histopathologic and ten clinical)were tested in mixed, linear, and Cox regressionmodels for their association with renalflare, ESRD, and eGFR during follow-up(1, 5, and 10 years) in 105 patients with LN who underwent biopsy from1987 to 2011. The Cockcroft-Gault (normalized to a body surface area of 1.73 m2) and Schwartz formulas were used to calculate eGFR for adults and children, respectively. Results During median follow-up of 9.9 years (25th-75th percentile, 5.9-13.8), 47 patients experienced a renal flare and 21 progressed to ESRD. Renal flarewas predicted by fibrinoid necrosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 per %; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.00 to 1.07) and nonwhite race (HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.23 to 4.04). ESRD was predicted by fibrinoid necrosis (HR, 1.08 per %; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.13), fibrous crescents (HR, 1.09 per %; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.17), interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) ≥25% (HR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.25 to 12.14), eGFR at baseline (HR, 0.98 per ml/min per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.00), and nonwhite race (HR, 7.16; 95% CI, 2.34 to 21.91). Ahigher mean eGFR during follow-up was associatedwith normal glomeruli (+0.2ml/min per 1.73m2 per %; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.4). Like ESRD, a lower eGFR during follow-up was associated with fibrous crescents, IF/TA ≥25%, and nonwhite race, as well as with cellular/fibrocellular crescents (20.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per %; 95% CI, 20.6 to 20.2) and age (20.8 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; 95% CI, 21.2 to 20.4). Conclusion The LN classification should include an index of evidence-based prognosticators. Awaiting validation of a formal index, we suggest that at least fibrinoid necrosis, fibrous crescents, and IF/TA warrant explicit independent scoring to assess the risk of progressive renal dysfunction in conjunction with clinical findings.
|Keywords||Atrophy, Clinical pathology, Evidence-based medicine, Fibrosis, Follow-up studies, Glomerular filtration rate, Humans, Kidney, Kidney failure, chronic, Kidney glomerulus, Lupus nephritis, Prognosis, Renal insufficiency, chronic|
|Persistent URL||dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.10601016, hdl.handle.net/1765/108645|
|Journal||Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology|
Rijnink, E.C. (Emilie C.), Teng, Y.K.O. (Y.K. Onno), Wilhelmus, S. (Suzanne), Almekinders, M. (Mathilde), Wolterbeek, R, Cransberg, K, … Bajema, I.M. (2017). Clinical and histopathologic characteristics associated with renal outcomes in lupus nephritis. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 12(5), 734–737. doi:10.2215/CJN.10601016