This descriptive 4-year study reports the proportion of detection of influenza viruses in less than 5-year-old children hospitalized for pneumonia in eight developing and emerging countries and describes clinical and microbiological characteristics of influenza-related pneumonia cases. Hospitalized children presenting radiologically confirmed pneumonia aged 2–60 months were prospectively enrolled in this observational standardized study. Mean proportion of isolated influenza virus was 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 7.9–11.8%) among 888 pneumonia children analyzed, with moderate heterogeneity between countries—ranging from 6.2% in Cambodia to 18.8% in Haiti. The clinical characteristics of children with influenza-related pneumonia were not substantially different from those of other pneumonia cases. Influenza A H1N1-related pneumonia cases appeared as more severe than pneumonia cases related to other strains of influenza. Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected more often in blood samples from influenza-related cases than in those without detected influenza viruses (19.7% versus 9.5%, P = 0.018). Influenza-related pneumonia is frequent among children less than 5 years old with pneumonia, living in developing and emerging countries. Influenza might be a frequent etiologic agent responsible for pneumonia or a predisposing status factor for pneumococcal-related pneumonia in this population.

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Journal American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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Dananche, C. (Cédric), Picot, V.S, Bénet, T, Messaoudi, M, Chou, M. (Monidarin), Wang, J. (Jianwei), … Vanhems, P. (2018). Burden of influenza in less than 5-year-old children admitted to hospital with pneumonia in developing and emerging countries: A descriptive, multicenter study. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 98(6), 1805–1810. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0494