This descriptive 4-year study reports the proportion of detection of influenza viruses in less than 5-year-old children hospitalized for pneumonia in eight developing and emerging countries and describes clinical and microbiological characteristics of influenza-related pneumonia cases. Hospitalized children presenting radiologically confirmed pneumonia aged 2–60 months were prospectively enrolled in this observational standardized study. Mean proportion of isolated influenza virus was 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 7.9–11.8%) among 888 pneumonia children analyzed, with moderate heterogeneity between countries—ranging from 6.2% in Cambodia to 18.8% in Haiti. The clinical characteristics of children with influenza-related pneumonia were not substantially different from those of other pneumonia cases. Influenza A H1N1-related pneumonia cases appeared as more severe than pneumonia cases related to other strains of influenza. Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected more often in blood samples from influenza-related cases than in those without detected influenza viruses (19.7% versus 9.5%, P = 0.018). Influenza-related pneumonia is frequent among children less than 5 years old with pneumonia, living in developing and emerging countries. Influenza might be a frequent etiologic agent responsible for pneumonia or a predisposing status factor for pneumococcal-related pneumonia in this population.,
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Dananche, C. (Cédric), Picot, V. S., Bénet, T., Messaoudi, M., Chou, M. (Monidarin), Wang, J. (Jianwei), … Vanhems, P. (2018). Burden of influenza in less than 5-year-old children admitted to hospital with pneumonia in developing and emerging countries: A descriptive, multicenter study. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 98(6), 1805–1810. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0494