Aims: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with subtle cognitive changes, but also with more severe stages of cognitive dysfunction, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. For these severe stages, it is uncertain which domains are primarily affected and if all patients with impairment are captured by formal criteria for MCI or dementia. Methods: Ninety-five patients with T2DM suspected of cognitive impairment, identified through screening in primary care, underwent neuropsychological examination assessing five different domains. MCI or dementia were diagnosed using formal criteria. Results: Forty-seven participants (49%) had impairment on at least one domain, most often involving memory (30%), information processing speed (22%) and visuoperception and construction (22%). Of these 47 people, 29 (62%) had multi-domain impairment. Of the 47 participants with objective impairment, 36 (77%) met criteria for MCI, three (6%) for dementia and eight (17%) met neither diagnosis, mostly because these patients did not complain about acquired dysfunction. Conclusions: This study shows that the clinical diagnostic evaluation of cognitive impairment in patients with T2DM should take into account that multiple domains can be affected and that not all patients with objective cognitive impairment fulfill criteria for MCI or dementia.

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Keywords Cognitive impairment, Diagnostic procedure, Type 2 diabetes mellitus
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Journal Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Groeneveld, O.N. (Onno N.), van den Berg, E, Rutten, G.E.H.M, Koekkoek, P.S. (Paula S.), Kappelle, L.J, & Biessels, G.J. (2018). Applicability of diagnostic constructs for cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 142, 92–99. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2018.05.025