Aims Open reduction is required following failed conservative treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The Ludloff medial approach is commonly used, but poor results have been reported, with rates of the development of avascular necrosis (AVN) varying between 8% and 54%. This retrospective cohort study evaluates the long-term radiographic and clinical outcome of dislocated hips treated using this approach. Patients and Methods Children with a dislocated hip, younger than one year of age at the time of surgery, who were treated using a medial approach were eligible for the study. Radiographs were evaluated for the degree of dislocation and the presence of an ossific nucleus preoperatively, and for the degree of AVN and residual dysplasia at one and five years and at a mean of 12.7 years (4.6 to 20.8) postoperatively. Radiographic outcome was assessed using the Severin classification, after five years of age. Further surgical procedures were recorded. Functional outcome was assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) or the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), depending on the patient’s age. Results A total of 52 children (58 hips) were included. At the latest follow-up, 11 hips (19%) showed signs of AVN. Further surgery was undertaken in 13 hips (22%). A total of 13 hips had a poor radiological outcome with Severin type III or higher. Of these, the age at the time of surgery was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those with a good Severin type (I or II). The patient-reported outcomes were significantly worse (p < 0.05) in children with a poor Severin classification. Conclusion This retrospective long-term follow-up study shows that one in five children with DDH who undergo open reduction using a medial surgical approach has poor clinical and/or radiological outcome. The poor outcome is not related to the presence of AVN (19%), but due to residual dysplasia.,
Bone and Joint Journal
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Pollet, V. (V.), van Dijk, L., Reijman, M., Castelein, R.M.C. (R. M.C.), & Sakkers, R.J.B. (R. J.B.). (2018). Long-term outcomes following the medial approach for open reduction of the hip in children with developmental dysplasia. Bone and Joint Journal, 100B(6), 822–827. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.100B6.BJJ-2017-0670.R2