Objectives: To compare MR imaging with or without DWI and clinical response evaluation (CRE) in the local control evaluation of cervical carcinoma after radiotherapy. Methods: In a multicentre university setting, we prospectively included 107 patients with primary cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy. Sensitivity and specificity for CRE and MR imaging (with pre-therapy MR imaging as reference) (2 readers) were evaluated using cautious and strict criteria for identifying residual tumour. Nested logistic regression models were constructed for CRE, subsequently adding MR imaging with and without DWI as independent variables, as well as the pre- to post-treatment change in apparent diffusion coefficient (delta ADC). Results: Using cautious criteria, CRE and MR imaging with DWI (reader 1/reader 2) have comparable high specificity (83% and 89%/95%, respectively), whereas MR imaging without DWI showed significantly lower specificity (63%/53%) than CRE. Using strict criteria, CRE and MR imaging with DWI both showed very high specificity (99% and 92%/95%, respectively), whereas MR imaging without DWI showed significantly lower specificity (89%/77%) than CRE. All sensitivities were not significantly different. Addition of MR imaging with DWI to CRE has statistically significant incremental value in identifying residual tumour (reader 1: estimate, 1.06; p = 0.001) (reader 2: estimate, 0.62; p = 0.02). Adding the delta ADC did not have significant incremental value in detecting residual tumour. Conclusions: DWI significantly increases the specificity of MR imaging in the detection of local residual tumour. Furthermore, MR imaging with DWI has significant incremental diagnostic value over CRE, whereas adding the delta ADC has no incremental diagnostic value. Key Points: • If MR imaging is used for response evaluation, DWI should be incorporated• MR imaging with DWI has diagnostic value comparable/complementary to clinical response evaluation• Inter-reader agreement is moderate to fair for two experienced radiologist readers• Quantitative measurements of ADC early post-therapy have limited diagnostic value

Additional Metadata
Keywords Comparative study, Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Radiation, Uterine cervical neoplasm
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5510-3, hdl.handle.net/1765/109079
Journal European Radiology: journal of the European Congress of Radiology
Citation
Thomeer, M, Vandecaveye, V, Braun, L.M.M, Mayer, F. (Frenchey), Franckena-Schouten, M. (Martine), de Boer, P. (Peter), … van Doorn, H. (Helena). (2018). Evaluation of T2-W MR imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging for the early post-treatment local response assessment of patients treated conservatively for cervical cancer: a multicentre study. European Radiology: journal of the European Congress of Radiology, 1–10. doi:10.1007/s00330-018-5510-3