New customs legislation - the Union Customs Code - became applicable in the EU on 1 May 2016. These new regulations seem to abolish the use of the 'first sale for export' rule for determining the customs value and introduce the 'last sale for export' rule. Although the EU is clearly attempting in this way to increase the revenue derived from customs duties, it is questionable how the new provisions for determining the customs value should be interpreted. This contribution discusses the technical and practical consequences of introducing the 'last sale for export' rule, while also examining how the introduction of this rule in the EU fits into a global pattern of customs valuation systems shifting from a first sale to a last sale rule.
Global Trade and Customs Journal
Erasmus University Rotterdam

Schippers, M. (2018). A series of sales: Determining the customs value under the Union Customs Code. Global Trade and Customs Journal, 13(2), 36–48. Retrieved from