Introduction The gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is frequently mutated in several tumor types including gliomas. The most prevalent mutation in gliomas is a missense mutation leading to a substitution of arginine with histidine at the residue 132 (R132H). Wild type IDH1 catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) whereas mutant IDH1 converts α-KG into D2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG). Unfortunately, there are few in vivo model systems for IDH-mutated tumors to study the effects of IDH1 mutations in tumor development. We have therefore created transgenic zebrafish lines that express various IDH1 mutants. Materials and methods IDH1 mutations (IDH1R132H, IDH1R132C and loss-of-function mutation IDH1G70D), IDH1wildtype or eGFP were cloned into constructs with several brain-specific promoters (Nestin, Gfap or Gata2). These constructs were injected into fertilized zebrafish eggs at the one-cell stage. Results In total more than ten transgenic zebrafish lines expressing various brain-specific IDH1 mutations were created. A significant increase in the level of D2HG was observed in all transgenic lines expressing IDH1R132C or IDH1R132H, but not in any of the lines expressing IDH1wildtype, IDH1G70D or eGFP. No differences in 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine and mature collagen IV levels were observed between wildtype and mutant IDH1 transgenic fish. To our surprise, we failed to identify any strong phenotype, despite increased levels of the oncome-tabolite D2HG. No tumors were observed, even when backcrossing with tp53-mutant fish which suggests that additional transforming events are required for tumor formation. Elevated D2HG levels could be lowered by treatment of the transgenic zebrafish with an inhibitor of mutant IDH1 activity. Conclusions We have generated a transgenic zebrafish model system for mutations in IDH1 that can be used for functional analysis and drug screening. Our model systems help understand the biology of IDH1 mutations and its role in tumor formation.

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Journal PLoS ONE
Gao, Y, De Wit, M, Struys, E, van der Linde, H.C, Salomons, G.S, Lamfers, M.L.M, … French, P.J. (2018). Idh1-mutated transgenic zebrafish lines: An in-vivo model for drug screening and functional analysis. PLoS ONE, 13(6). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0199737