In patients with a functionally univentricular heart, the Fontan strategy achieves separation of the systemic and pulmonary circulation and reduction of ventricular volume overload. Contemporary modifications of surgical techniques have significantly improved survival. However, the resulting Fontan physiology is associated with high morbidity. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of the Fontan strategy by assessing survival and risk factors for mortality. Complications of the Fontan circulation, such as cardiac arrhythmia, thromboembolism, and protein-losing enteropathy, are discussed. Common surgical and catheter-based interventions following Fontan completion are outlined. We describe functional status measurements such as quality of life and developmental outcomes in the contemporary Fontan patient. The current role of drug therapy in the Fontan patient is explored. Furthermore, we assess the current use and outcomes of mechanical circulatory support in the Fontan circulation and novel surgical innovations. Despite large improvements in outcomes for contemporary Fontan patients, a large burden of disease exists in this patient population. Continued efforts to improve outcomes are warranted. Several remaining challenges in the Fontan field are outlined.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Congenital heart defects, Fontan Procedure, Morbidity, Mortality, Pediatrics, Re-interventions, Single ventricle, Total cavopulmonary connection
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.13792.1, hdl.handle.net/1765/109171
Journal F1000Research
Citation
Helbing, W.A, van der Ven, J.P.G. (Jelle P. G.), Van den Bosch, E, & Bogers, A.J.C.C. (Ad J.C.C.). (2018). State of the art of the Fontan strategy for treatment of univentricular heart disease [version 1; referees: 2 approved]. F1000Research (Vol. 7). doi:10.12688/f1000research.13792.1