In a time of aging populations and an enormous increase in frailty within them, examination of these populations’ ability to achieve well-being has become increasingly important. This study aims to validate a theory-driven instrument for the measurement of well-being in three community-dwelling older populations: (i) a general population, (ii) a frail population, and (iii) Turkish migrants. The short (15-item) version of the Social Production Function Instrument for the Level of Well-being (SPF-ILs) measures whether a person's needs for stimulation, comfort, behavioral confirmation, affection, and status are met. This instrument has been validated only in adult (aged 18–65 years) populations. Three datasets were used to validate the SPF-ILs in samples of the general older population (945 respondents aged ≥ 70 years), frail older people (414 respondents aged ≥ 70 years), and older Turkish migrants (680 respondents aged ≥ 65 years) residing in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Psychometric results showed that the SPF-ILs is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of well-being and need-related goals to achieve well-being among (frail) native and migrant older populations. Worldwide, countries face the challenge of maintaining community-dwelling older people's well-being. This study clearly showed that older people differ in their realization of well-being which increased our understanding of the ability of community-dwelling older people in various populations to achieve well-being.

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Social Science & Medicine
Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management (ESHPM)

Nieboer, A., & Cramm, J. (2018). How do older people achieve well-being? Validation of the Social Production Function Instrument for the level of well-being–short (SPF-ILs). Social Science & Medicine, 211, 304–313. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.06.036