Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains one of the main long-term complications after heart transplantation. We performed a systematic review focused on articles published in the previous 6 years to reappraise the novel evidences supporting risk factors, pathology, prevention, and treatment of CAV. We identified a search string for a literature search on PubMed. We excluded articles specifically focused on diagnosis/biomarkers/imaging only or complications of other diseases. We included 98 studies out of our search. Forty-eight articles describe risk factors for CAV, 13 pathology, 24 prevention, and 13 treatment for CAV. While confirming known concepts, we found supportive evidence that CAV pathophysiology may vary according to the time post-transplant and the prevalence of metabolic versus immune-mediated risk factors. Selective revascularization of focal lesions in patients with CAV may result in some clinical benefit, but CAV prevention, rather than treatment, by controlling risk factors and by using targeted immunosuppressive therapies is the most evidence-based approach to reduce disease progression.

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Transplant International
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Langstraat, M. (Mandy), Musters, K.J.S. (Kyra J. S.), Manintveld, O., Masetti, M. (Marco), & Potena, L. (Luciano). (2018). Coronary artery disease in heart transplantation: new concepts for an old disease. Transplant International (Vol. 31, pp. 787–827). doi:10.1111/tri.13141