The political, economic, administrative, and social consequences of participative governance initiatives depend on the ability of local actors to institutionalize and implement new arrangements within the framework of overall representative democracy. Whether in terms of democratic revitalization or administrative modernization, in order to have more than limited effects, participatory arrangements need to be more than temporary structures in the periphery of the governance process. Institutionalization, we have argued, is essential to the success of participatory governance, regardless of its specific form or intended outcomes (cf. Torfing et al. 2012; Fung 2015).

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Hertting, N. (Nils), & Klijn, E-H. (2017). Institutionalization of local participatory governance in France, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Three arguments reconsidered. In Local Participatory Governance and Representative Democracy: Institutional Dilemmas in European Cities (pp. 168–194). doi:10.4324/9781315471174