We examine the effect of the sending-off of a player on the goal-scoring rates in FIFA World Cup matches in tournaments from 1998 to 2014. We use a hazard rate framework in which the effect of a red card is modeled as a shift in the goal-scoring rate. A red card may harm the team that receives a red card and may be beneficial for their opponent. Indeed, we find that the goal-scoring rate of the sanctioned team goes down, while the goal-scoring rate of the non-sanctioned team goes up.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Association football, Goal-scoring, Red card, World Cup football matches
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00181-017-1287-5, hdl.handle.net/1765/109448
Journal Empirical Economics: a quarterly journal of the Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna
Citation
Červený, J, van Ours, J.C, & van Tuijl, M.A. (Martin A.). (2017). Effects of a red card on goal-scoring in World Cup football matches. Empirical Economics: a quarterly journal of the Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna, 1–21. doi:10.1007/s00181-017-1287-5