Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of infection in intensive care units (ICUs). It is intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobials and easily acquires additional resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer of mobile genetic elements. In this study, 1528 P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from a Dutch national surveillance programme between the years 1998–2011 were analysed for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaBEL, blaPER, blaVEB and blaOXA-10) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes (blaIMP, blaVIM and blaNDM). Of the ceftazidime-resistant isolates, 6.2% tested phenotypically positive for ESBL. Moreover, a Verona integron-encoded MBL (VIM) gene was found in 3.1% of isolates that were phenotypically resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of ESBL-positive isolates indicated ST1216, ST111 and ST622, with all blaVIM-positive isolates belonging to the ST111 clone. Although the prevalence of ESBL and MBL phenotypes in this Dutch national surveillance collection of >1500 ICU P. aeruginosa isolates was very low, all VIM-producing isolates belonged to the high risk-associated, international, clonal complex CC111, and most ESBL-producing isolates belonged to clonal complexes known for their successful spread, e.g. CC111 and CC235. These data indicate that high-risk clones of P. aeruginosa were present in the Netherlands between 1998–2011 and probably spread unnoticed throughout Dutch hospitals.

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Keywords Antimicrobial resistance, Extended-spectrum β-lactamase, Intensive care unit, Metallo-β-lactamase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Surveillance programme
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Journal International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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Croughs, P.D. (P. D.), Klaassen, C.H.W. (C. H.W.), van Rosmalen, J.M, Maghdid, D.M, Boers, S.A, Hays, J.P, & Goessens, W.H.F. (W. H.F.). (2018). Unexpected mechanisms of resistance in Dutch Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected during 14 years of surveillance. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.05.009