Clinical predictors of escalating care in hepatic and renal cyst infection in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney and liver disease
The Netherlands Journal of Medicine , Volume 76 - Issue 5 p. 226- 234
Background: Cyst infection may occur in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD). Antimicrobial agents often fail to control infection, leading to invasive action. We aimed to identify factors predicting escalation of care. Methods: ADPKD and ADPLD patients were identified from local/national databases (2001-2013). Records were screened for patients meeting criteria for cyst infection (positive cyst aspirate and/or clinical findings). Factors that predict escalated care were identified with multivariate modified Poisson regression. Results: We screened 1773 patients. A total of 77 patients with cyst infection (4.3%) were included for analysis (hepatic 36%; male 49%; age 54 ± 13 years; ADPKD 95%; dialysis 9%, diabetes 18%, renal transplant 56%, eGFR [IQR 24-78] ml/min/1.73 m2 (excluding patients with a history of renal transplant or receiving dialysis)). A pathogen was identified in 71% of cases. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen and accounted for 69% of cases. Initial treatment was limited to antibiotics in 87% of patients (n = 67), 40% included a fluoroquinolone. Ultimately, 48% of patients underwent some form of invasive action (escalation of care). Increasing white blood cell count (WBC) (RR 1.04 95%-CI 1.01-1.07, p = 0.008) was associated with escalating care, whereas an increase in time between transplant and infection (RR 0.92 95% CI 0.86-0.97, p = 0.005) and E. coli isolation (RR 0.55 95% CI 0.34-0.89, p = 0.02) were protective. Conclusion: High serum WBC, isolation of atypical pathogens and early infection after transplantation are factors that increase the risk of escalation of care in hepatic and renal cyst infection patients.