Essentials: A pediatric pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm for acenocoumarol has not yet been developed. We conducted a multicenter retrospective follow-up study in children in the Netherlands. Body surface area and indication explained 45.0% of the variability in dose requirement. Adding the genotypes of VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP2C18 to the algorithm increased this to 61.8%. Summary: Background: The large variability in dose requirement of vitamin K antagonists is well known. For warfarin, pediatric dosing algorithms have been developed to predict the correct dose for a patient; however, this is not the case for acenocoumarol. Objectives: To develop dosing algorithms for pediatric patients receiving acenocoumarol with and without genetic information. Methods: The Children Anticoagulation and Pharmacogenetics Study was designed as a multicenter retrospective follow-up study in Dutch anticoagulation clinics and children's hospitals. Pediatric patients who used acenocoumarol between 1995 and 2014 were selected for inclusion. Clinical information and saliva samples for genotyping of the genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), CYP4F2, CYP2C18 and CYP3A4 were collected. Linear regression was used to analyze their association with the log mean stable dose. A stable period was defined as three or more consecutive International Normalized Ratio measurements within the therapeutic range over a period of ≥ 3 weeks. Results: In total, 175 patients were included in the study, of whom 86 had a stable period and no missing clinical information (clinical cohort; median age 8.9 years, and 49% female). For 80 of these 86 patients, genetic information was also available (genetic cohort). The clinical algorithm, containing body surface area and indication, explained 45.0% of the variability in dose requirement of acenocoumarol. After addition of the VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP2C18 genotypes to the algorithm, this increased to 61.8%. Conclusions: These findings show that clinical factors had the largest impact on the required dose of acenocoumarol in pediatric patients. Nevertheless, genetic factors, and especially VKORC1, also explained a significant part of the variability.

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Keywords Acenocoumarol, Adolescent, Child, Coumarins, Infant, Pharmacogenetics
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Journal Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Maagdenberg, H. (H.), Bierings, M, van Ommen, C.H, van der Meer, F.J.M, Appel, I.M, Tamminga, R, … Maitland-van der Zee, A-H. (2018). The pediatric acenocoumarol dosing algorithm: The Children Anticoagulation and Pharmacogenetics Study. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. doi:10.1111/jth.14211