Background. Hepatolithiasis is highly prevalent in East Asia characterized by the presence of gallstones in the biliary ducts of the liver. Surgical resection is the potentially curative treatment but bears a high risk of stone recurrence and biliary restenosis. This is closely related to the universal presence of chronic proliferative cholangitis (CPC) in the majority of patients. Recent evidence has indicated the association of bacterial infection with the development of CPC in hepatolithiasis. Thus, this study aims to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of local infusion of gentamicin (an antibiotic) for the treatment of CPC in a rabbit model. Methods. The rabbit CPC model was established based on previously published protocols. Bile duct samples were collected from gentamicin-treated or control animals for pathological and molecular characterization. Results. Histologically, the hyperplasia of biliary epithelium and submucosal glands were inhibited and the thickness of the bile duct wall was significantly decreased after gentamicin therapy. Consistently, the percentage of proliferating cells marked by ki67 was significantly reduced by the treatment. More importantly, this treatment inhibited interleukin 2 production, an essential inflammatory cytokine, and the enzyme activity of endogenous β-Glucuronidase, a key factor in the formation of bile pigment. Conclusions. Local gentamicin infusion effectively inhibits the inflammation, cell proliferation, and lithogenesis in a rabbit model of CPC. This approach represents a potential treatment for CPC and thus prevents recurrent hepatolithiasis.

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Journal BioMed Research International
Yang, Q. (Qin), Wu, Z. (Zhenru), Liu, F. (Fei), Wang, J. (Junke), Ma, W. (Wenjie), Hu, H. (Haijie), … Pan, Q. (2018). Effective Treatment of Chronic Proliferative Cholangitis by Local Gentamicin Infusion in Rabbits. BioMed Research International, 2018. doi:10.1155/2018/6751952