Background Renal dysfunction and anaemia are common in patients with acute heart failure (HF). It is not known whether their combined presence has additive prognostic value. We investigated their prognostic value separately and in combination, on prognosis in acute HF patients. Furthermore, we examined whether the improvement in prognosis was comparable between patients with and without renal dysfunction. Methods and results This prospective registry includes 1783 patients admitted to the (Intensive) Coronary Care Unit for acute HF in the period of 1985–2008. The outcome measure was the composite of all-cause mortality, heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device implantation. In patients without renal dysfunction, anemia was associated with worse 30-day outcome (HR 2.91; [95% CI 1.69–5.00]), but not with 10-year outcome (HR 1.13 [95% CI 0.93–1.37]). On the contrary, anemia was found to influence prognosis in patients with renal dysfunction, both at 30 days (HR 1.93 [95% CI 1.33–2.80]) and at 10 years (HR 1.27 [95% CI 1.10–1.47]). Over time, the 10-year survival rate improved in patients with preserved renal function (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.55–0.97]), but not in patients with renal dysfunction. Conclusion The long-term prognosis of acute HF patients with a preserved renal function was found to have improved significantly. However, the prognosis of patients with renal dysfunction did not change. Anemia was a strong prognosticator for short-term outcome in all patients. In patients with renal dysfunction, anemia was also associated with impaired long-term prognosis.

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Journal PLoS ONE
van den Berge, J.C, Constantinescu, A.A, van Domburg, R.T, Brankovic, M. (Milos), Deckers, J.W, & Martijn Akkerhuis, K. (K.). (2018). Renal function and anemia in relation to short- and long-term prognosis of patients with acute heart failure in the period 1985-2008: A clinical cohort study. PLoS ONE (Vol. 13). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0201714