The spectrum of structural and functional abnormalities in female carriers of pathogenic variants in the RPGR gene
PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenotype and long-term clinical course of female carriers of RPGR mutations. METHODS. This was a retrospective cohort study of 125 heterozygous RPGR mutation carriers from 49 families. RESULTS. Eighty-three heterozygotes were from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) pedigrees, 37 were from cone-/cone-rod dystrophy (COD/CORD) pedigrees, and 5 heterozygotes were from pedigrees with mixed RP/CORD or unknown diagnosis. Mutations were located in exon 1-14 and in ORF15 in 42 of 125 (34%) and 83 of 125 (66%) subjects, respectively. The mean age at the first examination was 34.4 years (range, 2.1 to 86.0 years). The median follow-up time in heterozygotes with longitudinal data (n = 62) was 12.2 years (range, 1.1 to 52.2 years). Retinal pigmentary changes were present in 73 (58%) individuals. Visual symptoms were reported in 51 (40%) cases. Subjects with both symptoms and pigmentary fundus changes were older than the other heterozygotes (P = 0.01) and had thinner foveal outer retinas (P = 0.006). Complete expression of the RP or CORD phenotype was observed in 29 (23%) heterozygotes, although usually in milder forms than in affected male relatives. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was <20/40 and <20/400 in at least one eye in 45 of 116 (39%) and 11 of 116 (9%) heterozygotes, respectively. Myopia was observed in 74 of 101 (73%) subjects and was associated with lower BCVA (P = 0.006). Increasing age was associated with lower BCVA (P = 0.002) and decreasing visual field size (P = 0.012; I4e isopter). CONCLUSIONS. RPGR mutations lead to a phenotypic spectrum in female carriers, with myopia as a significantly aggravating factor. Complete disease expression is observed in some individuals, who may benefit from future (gene) therapeutic options.
|Keywords||Disease progression, Gene therapy, Retinitis pigmentosa, Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator|
|Persistent URL||dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-23453, hdl.handle.net/1765/110104|
|Journal||Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science|
Talib, M. (Mays), Schooneveld, M.J, Van Cauwenbergh, C. (Caroline), Wijnholds, J, ten Brink, J.B, Florijn, R.J, … Boon, C.J.F. (2018). The spectrum of structural and functional abnormalities in female carriers of pathogenic variants in the RPGR gene. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 59(10), 4123–4133. doi:10.1167/iovs.17-23453