Predictive value of electroencephalography in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
Objectives: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) is a severe, but treatable disease. This study aims to give a detailed description of electroencephalogram (EEG) results in paediatric and adult patients to improve disease recognition, and analyses the predictive value of the first EEG for the final clinical outcome. Methods: This nationwide cohort study includes patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies confirmed with cell-based assay and immunohistochemistry in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. EEG recordings were re-evaluated by two experienced neurophysiologists, mixed with control EEGs for blinding. Initial EEG as well as follow-up registrations were analysed. Results: 35 adults and 18 children were included. Only two patients (4%) had a normal EEG. During the first recording, the majority of the patients had normal posterior rhythm (71%), which was associated with better modified Rankin Scale at final outcome (OR 4.74; 95% CI 1.56 to 14.47; p=0.006). In addition, EEGs showed focal (73%) or diffuse (67%) slowing. The first EEG was severely abnormal in 26%. However, 8 of 14 patients with a severely abnormal first EEG still had a favourable outcome. During the course of the disease, extreme delta brushes (EDBs) were present in 6 of 53(11%)patients. Conclusions: The first EEG commonly shows normal posterior rhythm with focal or diffuse slowing. Although the sensitivity of an abnormal EEG is high (96%), normal EEG does not exclude anti-NMDARE. EDBs are only present in severely affected patients. The first EEG recording is predictive of the final clinical outcome.
|Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in all areas of neurology and neurosurgery|
|Organisation||Department of Neurology|
Sonderen, A.V. (Agnes Van), Arends, S. (Samuel), Tavy, D, Bastiaansen, A.E.M. (Anna E. M.), Bruijn, M.A.A.M.D. (Marienke A. A. M. De), Schreurs, M.W.J, … Titulaer, M.J. (2018). Predictive value of electroencephalography in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in all areas of neurology and neurosurgery. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2018-318376