Background: Sleep disorders are common but underdiagnosed conditions, which are associated with obesity. In Colombia, the distribution of sleep disorders remains unclear. We aimed to describe the distribution of sleep disorders, according to demographic, geographic and anthropometric characteristics, in adult Colombian populations.
Methods: A multicenter study was conducted with 5474 participants recruited from three Colombian cities at different altitudes. A two-stage cluster sampling method was applied. Participants’ mean age was 40.2 years and 53.8% were female. Collected data included demographic information and anthropometric characteristics of adiposity such as body mass index, neck circumference and waist circumference, as well as participants’ scores on five scales used to assess sleep disorders. Disorders included sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), insomnia, poor sleep quality and restless legs syndrome; the scales were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Berlin questionnaire, STOP-Bang questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and diagnostic criteria for the restless legs syndrome set out by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group.
Results: Nearly two-thirds of the population reported at least one sleep disorder according to their results on the five scales (59.6% [95%CI 57.4; 61.81)]. This proportion was similar by sex. Prevalence of overweight was 34.8% and of obesity was 14.4%. Sleep disorders were more frequent among those aged 65 years or more (91.11 [95%CI 86.1; 94.43]), those who were obese (83.71% [95%CI 78.94; 87.56]) and those who resided in the cities at the lowest altitude (72.4% [95%CI 70.2; 74.5]). Waist circumference showed a stronger association with sleep disorders among women than among men.
Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common in Colombia, irrespective of sex and geographical location. They are associated with obesity. Abdominal obesity could explain the high frequency of sleep disorders among women. We believe that this part of the study will substantially contribute to the understanding of sleep disorders. Further research is needed to identify key factors behind the high prevalence rates of sleep disorders and obesity in Colombia.

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Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Ruiz, A. J., Rondon Sepúlveda, M., Franco, O., Cepeda, M., Hidalgo Martinez, P., Amado Garzón, S., … Otero Mendoza, L. (2016). The associations between sleep disorders and anthropometric measures in adults from three Colombian cities at different altitudes. Maturitas, 94, 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.08.013