Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and the implementation of primary HPV screening in the Netherlands will lead to a lower cervical disease burden. For evaluation and further improvement of prevention, it is important to estimate the magnitude and timing of health benefits of current and alternative vaccination strategies such as vaccination of boys or adults. Methods and findings We evaluated the impact of the current girls-only vaccination program and alternative strategies on cervical disease burden among the first four vaccinated five-year birth cohorts, given the context of primary HPV screening. We integrated the existing microsimulation models STDSIM (HPV transmission model) and MISCAN-Cervix (cervical cancer screening model). Alternative vaccination strategies include: improved vaccination uptake, including routine boys vaccination, and offering adult vaccination at sexual health clinics. Our models show that the current vaccination program is estimated to reduce cervical cancers and cancer deaths by about 35% compared to primary HPV screening in the absence of vaccination. The number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to gain 1 life year is 45. The most efficient alternative vaccination strategies are: 1) improving coverage of girls to 80% (NNV = 42); and 2) routine vaccination for girls and boys at 80% coverage (incremental NNV = 155), with cervical cancer mortality reductions estimated at 50% and 60% respectively. Conclusions While the current program already substantially reduces cervical cancer incidence and mortality, prevention can be further improved by increasing vaccination uptake and extending vaccination to boys. As not all cervical cancer deaths will be prevented, screening participation should still be encouraged.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202924, hdl.handle.net/1765/110162
Journal PLoS ONE
Citation
Matthijsse, S.M, Naber, S.K, Hontelez, J.A.C, Bakker, R, van Ballegooijen, M, Lansdorp-Vogelaar, I, … de Vlas, S.J. (2018). The health impact of human papillomavirus vaccination in the situation of primary human papillomavirus screening: A mathematical modeling study. PLoS ONE, 13(9). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0202924